With the first line itself, we answer your question they are all the same. Obesity is a condition of a person where his body weight (and body fat) has reached the state where it can cause serious problems. Weight loss is the procedure of getting back in shape through diet, exercise, surgeries or medications. Bariatrics is the branch of medical science that studies both. This article will focus on ‘Bariatric surgery’, ‘Different types of Bariatric surgery’, ‘People who require Bariatric surgery’ and lastly a brief ‘Bariatric surgery in India.’

Bariatric Surgery Bariatric Surgery includes a variety of procedures which make changes in the digestive system, so your food intake or absorption of nutrients is reduced, sometimes both. 

Different types of Bariatric surgery:

There are two broad categories: 

  • Restriction- In these, the stomach's natural capacity to hold a certain amount of food is reduced, thus resulting in the lesser intake of food. The smaller the stomach, the less you eat, the more weight you lose.
  • Malabsorption- In these, a part of the small intestine is shortened or bypassed, thus reducing the number of calories and nutrients the body can absorb. The stomach is reduced a bit for bypass.

Types of restrictive weight-loss surgery are:

  • Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), also known as stomach stapling, is making a small pouch in the upper section of the stomach by using band and staples. The pouch will have a one-centimetre hole in the bottom of it, so the contents will flow to the bottom of the stomach and continue for the normal digestive process.
  • Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), is positioning of an inflatable bland around the top portion of the stomach. When inflated, the band acts like a belt and divides the stomach into two pouches (upper small and lower big). As it's adjustable as per one's need, it requires periodical adjustments for same.
  • Sleeve gastrectomy or gastric sleeve, is the process of surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach. The resultant stomach is actually fifteen percent of the original one. The edges are then attached together with surgical staples, sutures, or both. As the cut is followed on the curve part, the stomach's shape is now more like a tube, or a sleeve, with a banana shape. 
  • Gastric Plication or Sleeve Plication is a newer minimally invasive weight-loss surgery technique that reduces the size of the stomach capacity to approximately 3 ounces. As per the Bariatrics Doctors in India, It is a sophisticated version of sleeve gastrectomy. The sleeve is created by folding the liver rather than removing stomach a part of it, so you will feel full sooner. It also a reversible process.

Types of malabsorption weight-loss surgery are:

  • Roux-en-Y (Gastric Bypass)- First the surgeon cuts across the top of your stomach and seals it off. Second, the surgeon joints the small intestine at the shortest distance from the cut at the stomach and sews it. Now, the patient has a smaller stomach which will make him feel full sooner. The food will bypass maximum section of stomach. This surgery is irreversible. The rest of the stomach and small intestine remains inside, as through the duodenum, bile juice and various enzymes required for absorbing nutrients need to reach the small intestine. 
  • Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch- This one's a bit complex, as it's a multipart procedure. Eighty percent of the stomach is removed at first. Then the point (duodenum) where contents exit the stomach and enter the small intestine is cut. Another cut is made in the small intestine like the one in the gastric sleeve. Duodenum is sealed and attached back at the stomach, the second head of this part of the intestine is attached to the rest of the small intestine, 75-100 cm before the colon. The stomach is smaller so the patient will feel full sooner and as the certain part of the small intestine is shortened, the nutrients will be absorbed less.

Some ways are debated by doctors and surgeons to be included in gastric surgery or not, below mentioned are the ones: 

  • Gastric balloon- is one of the latest weight-loss procedures. In a silicone balloon filled with saline solution is placed in your stomach. This makes the patient feel full sooner and reduces the appetite.
  • Vagal blockade or Vblock- In this, a device similar to a heart pacemaker is implanted, the electrical impulses leads to stimulating the external surface of the stomach to modify the activity of the enteric nervous system. Which is then interpreted by the brain to give a sense of fullness. 

People who require Bariatric surgery

Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries are only advisable when:

  • BMI is 40 or higher (extreme obesity).
  • BMI is 35 to 39.9 (obesity), and you have a serious weight-related health problem: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure or severe sleep apnea. 
  • In some cases, if BMI is 30 to 34 and you have serious weight-related health problems, you may qualify for some of them.

Bariatric surgery in India

Apart from severe overweight, certain medical guidelines are to be considered for gastric bypass. You have to be committed in the adoption of healthier lifestyle patterns. Even there are long-term follow-up plans including your behavioural and other medical conditions.

There are many 'Bariatric surgery hospitals in India' which are working their level best to provide necessary care and treatment to obesity sufferers. The success rates of bariatric surgeries in India is comparable with international standards. In Delhi itself, every day more than one hundred bariatric surgeries take place.

Along with surgeries hospitals also provide counsellors and nutritionists. India is moving forward in robotic technology too, there are hospitals which provide robotic surgical procedures too!

Here are some key factors you should weigh while searching the hospital for Bariatric surgery:

  • Major equipment and facilities.
  • Experienced and skilled doctors.
  • Highly qualified paramedical staff
  • Easy accessibility and locations.

So we have read almost all types of Bariatric surgeries, about people who require them, about bariatric surgery in India. Just for revision, Bariatric surgery, Weight loss surgery, and Obesity surgery are all the same! Be smart and sincere while choosing a 'Bariatric surgery hospital'.